home

 
Military Necessity
Control of the Border States allowed emancipation to be used as a tool against the Confederation through demoralization, "property" confiscation, and the use of freedmen in the Union armed forces.
 

Jun. 8, 1861, Scientific American, p. 362, col. 2
Non-interference with Slavery.

Sep 21, 1861, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 1-2
General Fremont’s proclamation and President Lincoln’s response.

Nov. 25, 1861, New York Illustrated News, p. 49, col. 1-4
Beaufort and Abolition.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 338, col. 1
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
Robert Smalls and the Planter.

Jul. 26, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 467, col. 2-3
Senate discussion about employing blacks in the military.

Jul. 26, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 467, col. 3
Abraham Lincoln proposes a compensated emancipation bill to Congress.

Aug. 9, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 498, col. 1
Proclamation by President Lincoln announcing confiscation of rebel property. Also see sixth section of Confiscation Act.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 562, col. 1
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 563, col. 3-4
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 626, col. 1-2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 627, col. 2-3
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 642, col. 2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, New York Illustrated News, p. 354, col. 3
“A Proclamation by the President of the United States.”

Oct. 11, 1862, Southern Illustrated, p. 4, col. 1-2
Comments on Antietam and on the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 18, 1862, Scientific American, p. 242, col. 2
Notes on Naval and Military Affairs.

Nov. 15, 1862, New York Illustrated News, p. 18, col. 2
Rebels in Texas send slaves to Cuba.

Jan. 10, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 18, col. 1-2
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 258, col. 3-4
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 34, col. 1
The Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 24, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 276, col. 1-4
Emancipation Day in Port Royal, South Carolina, illustration.

Feb. 14, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 98, col. 4
Editorial: “Shall There Be Colored Soldiers?”

Feb. 28, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 133, col. 1-4
“Our Colored Troops—the Line Officers of the First Louisiana National Guard,” illustration.

Jun. 13, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 371, col. 1
“The Flag,” a poem dedicated to Robert G. Shaw and the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth Regiment.

Jun. 20, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 386, col. 1-2
Editorial on the use of “Negro” troops.

 


 
Revolution from Below
The fact that slaves were already emancipating themselves presented an opportunity for the Lincoln administration to use for the Union's benefit.
 

Jun. 8, 1861, Scientific American, p. 362, col. 2
Non-interference with Slavery.

Sep. 21, 1861, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 1-2
General Fremont’s Proclamation and President Lincoln’s response.

Mar. 15, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 162, col. 2-3
Editorial on Port Royal.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 338, col. 1
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
Robert Smalls and the Planter.

Jun. 7, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 354, col. 4 & p. 355, col. 1
“Eight Contrabands bring out the rebel steamer Planter from Charleston harbor."

Jun. 14, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 372, col. 1-4 & p. 373, col. 1
Robert Smalls, Captain of the Planter.

Aug. 9, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 498, col. 1
Proclamation by President Lincoln announcing confiscation of rebel property. 
Also see sixth section of Confiscation Act.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 562, col. 1
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 563, col. 3-4
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 626, col. 1-2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 627, col. 2-3
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 642, col. 2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, New York Illustrated News, p. 354, col. 3
“A Proclamation by the President of the United States.”

Jan. 10, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 18, col. 1-2
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 34, col. 1
The Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 24, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 275, col. 1
Slaves in Maryland refuse to labor.

Jan. 24, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 276, col. 1-4
Emancipation Day in Port Royal South Carolina, an illustration.

Feb. 14, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 98, col. 4
Editorial: “Shall There Be Colored Soldiers?”

Feb.28, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 133, col. 1-4
“Our Colored Troops—the Line Officers of the First Louisiana National Guard,” illustration.

Jun. 6, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 355, col. 2
Frederick Law Olmsted tells story of an enslaved black man who used his owner’s gun to gain freedom for his wife and child.

Jun. 13, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 371, col. 1
“The Flag,” a poem dedicated to Robert G. Shaw and the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth Regiment.

Jun. 20, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 386, col. 1-2
Editorial on the use of “Negro” troops.

 


 
Higher Law
Pressure from abolitionists and Lincoln's own convictions to bring the slave states in line with the principle in the Declaration of Independence that all men are created equal.
 

Feb. 9, 1861, New York Illustrated News, p. 210, col. 2-3
“The Right of the South to its ‘Chattels.’”

Sep 21, 1861, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 1-2
General Fremont’s proclamation and President Lincoln’s response.

Oct. 5, 1861, Scientific American, p. 210, col. 1
“Fremont’s Proclamation and the President.”

Mar. 15, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 162, col. 2-3
Editorial on Port Royal.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 338, col. 1
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

Aug. 9, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 498, col. 1
Proclamation by President Lincoln announcing confiscation of rebel property. 
Also see sixth section of Confiscation Act.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 562, col. 1
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 563, col. 3-4
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 626, col. 1-2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 627, col. 2-3
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 642, col. 2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, New York Illustrated News, p. 354, col. 3
“A Proclamation by the President of the United States.”

Dec. 13, 1862, Scientific American, p. 370, col. 1
Lincoln’s State of the Union Message.

Dec. 13, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 786, col. 1-2
Editorial on Lincoln’s message to Congress on compensated emancipation and colonization.

Jan. 17, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 34, col. 1
The Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 258, col. 3-4
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 24, 1863, Harper’s Weekly p. 55, col. 3-4 & pp. 56-57, col. 1-4
Commentary and a Thomas Nast cartoon on Emancipation (includes description of a slave auction in Georgia in 1859.)

Mar. 14, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 171, col. 4 & p. 172, col. 1-4
Great Union and Emancipation Meeting held in London, article and illustration.

Aug. 30, 1864, Father Abraham, p. 1, col. 1
An Acrostic (on Emancipation and Lincoln).

 


 
Diplomatic Considerations
Since emancipation was popular with the British working class, the policy helped convince the British government not to recognize the Confederacy diplomatically.
 

Feb. 9, 1861, New York Illustrated News, p. 210, col. 2-3
“The Right of the South to its ‘Chattels.’”

Sep 21, 1861, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 1-2
General Fremont’s proclamation and President Lincoln’s response.

Oct. 5, 1861, Scientific American, p. 210, col. 1
“Fremont’s Proclamation and the President.”

Apr. 5, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 210, col. 2-3
Editorial, “What to do with Negroes once they are free?”

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 338, col. 1
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

Jul. 26, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 467, col. 2-3
Senate discussion about employing blacks in the military.

Jul. 26, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 467, col. 3
Abraham Lincoln proposes a compensated emancipation bill to Congress.

Aug. 9, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 498, col. 1
Proclamation by President Lincoln
announcing confiscation of rebel property.  Also see sixth section of Confiscation Act.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 562, col. 1
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 563, col. 3-4
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 626, col. 1-2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 627, col. 2-3
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 642, col. 2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, New York Illustrated News, p. 354, col. 3
“A Proclamation by the President of the United States.”

Dec. 13, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 786, col. 1-2
Editorial on Lincoln’s message to Congress on compensated emancipation and colonization.

Dec. 13, 1862, Scientific American, p. 370, col. 1
Lincoln’s State of the Union Message.

Jan. 17, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 258, col. 3-4
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Harper’s Weekly p. 34, col. 1
The Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, New York Illustrated News, p. 171, col. 4
London Star reports on pro-Emancipation meeting.

Jan. 24, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 275, col. 4
Workingmen of Manchester approve Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 31, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 4
Jefferson Davis’ Annual Message.

Mar. 14, 1863, Southern Illustrated, p. 2, col. 1-2
Lincoln as Dictator.

Mar. 14, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 171, col. 4 & p. 172, col. 1-4
Great Union and Emancipation Meeting held in London, article and illustration.


 
Long-Term Process
The Lincoln administration and the Republican-controlled Congress had been chipping away at the institution of slavery since the beginning of the war, and the Emancipation Proclamation was a logical next step in that process.
 

Feb. 9, 1861, New York Illustrated News, p. 210, col. 2-3
“The Right of the South to its ‘Chattels.’”

Jun. 8, 1861, Scientific American, p. 362, col. 2
Non-interference with Slavery.

Sep 21, 1861, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 1-2
General Fremont’s proclamation and President Lincoln’s response.

Oct. 5, 1861, Scientific American, p. 210, col. 1
“Fremont’s Proclamation and the President.”

Nov. 25, 1861, New York Illustrated, p. 49, col. 1-4
Beaufort and Abolition.

Mar. 15, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 162, col. 2-3
Editorial on Port Royal.

Apr. 5, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 210, col. 2-3
Editorial, “What to do with Negroes once they are free?”

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 338, col. 1
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

May 31, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 339, col. 3
President Lincoln’s proclamation rescinding General Orders of General Hunter freeing slaves in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

Jul. 26, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 467, col. 2-3
Senate discussions about employing blacks in the military.

Jul. 26, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 467, col. 3
Abraham Lincoln proposes a compensated emancipation bill to Congress.

Aug. 9, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 498, col. 1
Proclamation by President Lincoln
announcing confiscation of rebel property.  Also see sixth section of Confiscation Act.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 562, col. 1
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Sep. 6, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 563, col. 3-4
Exchange between Abraham Lincoln and Horace Greeley on slavery.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 626, col. 1-2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 4, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 627, col. 2-3
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 642, col. 2
Lincoln’s Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Oct. 11, 1862, New York Illustrated News, p. 354, col. 3
“A Proclamation by the President of the United States.”

Dec. 13, 1862, Harper’s Weekly, p. 786, col. 1-2
Editorial on Lincoln’s message to Congress on compensated emancipation and colonization.

Dec. 13, 1862, Scientific American, p. 370, col. 1
Lincoln’s State of the Union Message.

Jan. 10, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 18, col. 1-2
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 258, col. 3-4
Editorial on Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 17, 1863, Harper’s Weekly p. 34, col. 1
The Emancipation Proclamation.

Jan. 24, 1863, Harper’s Weekly p. 55, col. 3-4 & pp. 56-57, col. 1-4
Commentary and a Thomas Nast cartoon on Emancipation (includes description of a slave auction in Georgia in 1859.)

Jan. 31, 1863, Leslie’s Illustrated, p. 290, col. 4
Jefferson Davis’ Annual Message.

Feb. 14, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 98, col. 4
Editorial: “Shall There Be Colored Soldiers?”

Feb. 28, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 133, col. 1-4
“Our Colored Troops—the Line Officers of the First Louisiana National Guard,” illustration.

Mar. 14, 1863, Southern Illustrated, p. 2, col. 1-2
Lincoln as Dictator.

Mar. 14, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 171, col. 4 & p. 172, col. 1-4
Great Union and Emancipation Meeting held in London, article and illustration.

Jun. 20, 1863, Harper’s Weekly, p. 386, col. 1-2
Editorial on the use of “Negro” troops.

Aug. 30, 1864, Father Abraham, p. 1, col. 1
An Acrostic (on Emancipation and Lincoln).

Nov. 8, 1864, Father Abraham, p. 2, col. 3
“Our Father who art in Washington.”

 

 

     
 

 

 
     
 

 

 
     

Website design © 2000-2007 HarpWeek LLC
All Content © 1998-2007 HarpWeek, LLC
Please submit questions to support@harpweek.com